The term koppojutsu (“bone technique”) is most frequently used in traditional Japanese martial arts to refer to “breaking” techniques.  They are the joint-breaking techniques of koryu Jujitsu and Ninjutsu, and the kicks and strikes of old form Karate designed to break bones and ribs.  For the purposes of this article, koppo specifically implies the intentional study and practice of the ability to harm and destroy, in contrast to mainstream Aikido practice in which only peaceful technique is practiced in support of the moral vision of the Founder.  Koppo is the emphasis of battlefield technique, of which modern Aikido “safe” technique is a limited manifestation. Koppo focus requires very serious intent, treating training as situations of life-and-death severity, and intentionally setting aside comfortable focus, attitudes, and energy in training.  While the concept of atemi also can include striking disruptive or sensitive targets, Saotome Sensei’s usage of koppo refers to a specific mindset beyond augmentation of technique.

In recent years, Saotome Sensei has spoken increasingly of the importance of studying koppo for serious students of Aikido.  In keiko, he often uses it while demonstrating pressure point strikes and controls beyond the typical Aikido syllabus (e.g., sankyo, yonkyo), and an attitude of severe martial intent.  After an extensive class on the topic at the 2016 ASU Winter Intensive, I had the opportunity to interview him at length on what would be, for most Aikidoka, a very controversial topic.  The following article is written in Sensei’s voice based on that interview, and to match the flow of the conversation as much as possible. It is also written to convey Saotome Sensei’s deep convication and explanation about how the study of destructive techniques can be not only consistent with Aikido moral philosophy, but requisite for a deeper understanding of the teachings of the Founder.

The Light Side and the Dark Side

Koppo is the “dark side” of Aikido training.  Yes, the purpose of Aikido is healing; healing is the “light side” (as Sensei describes this, he holds his hand out and shows the top, then the bottom of his right hand).  The koppo side of Aikido studies destruction, and knowledge of how to destroy an attacker in order to save your life and the lives of others.  Most Aikido practitioners do not have an understanding of koppo, and think that they can choose to practice only the light side.  They are not attracted to dark side techniques and concepts, they don’t even like the idea.  But the light side and dark side, ura and omote (front and back) are not different things.  True Aikido light side must also contain the dark side.  Without an understanding of koppo, an ability to destroy, then Aikidoka have no actual ability to defend themselves or others in true life-or-death situations.

“Aikido is not dancing!” – Saotome Sensei

This was taught to me by O Sensei.  O Sensei never discussed koppojutsu concepts and weapons koppojutsu to regular students or at seminars, only to his closest uchideshi (apprentice disciples).  Only three people – Tamura, Chiba, and myself.  Maybe to some of his original uchideshi too.  But koppo understanding, awareness, capability was part of all of his movements.  It was part of his power, it was always there in his open hand movements, always in his kumitachi and kumijo.  Every time he picked up a jo (staff), every time he picked up a ken (sword), there was the harnessed power to kill.  All Aikido techniques contain the power to kill or deeply injure (at this point, Sensei demonstrates a kotegaeshi on me; then he repeats the technique, only against my thumb, and then again with my finger joints crumpled).  With proper understanding our techniques are not “safe” versions of historical battle techniques, they are full-power battlefield techniques that nage is strong enough to contain for the sake of uke.  The technique that O Sensei manifested was like a tiger biting gently with its teeth; compassionate but with reservation of incredible power that one felt at a primitive level.  Nage should always be aware of this.

There Are Not Two Swords, Only One

This is one of the deeper meanings of katsujinken / satsujinken (the philosophy of the “life giving sword” versus the “death giving sword”) – that there are not two different swords, but one.  O Sensei talked about these concepts to me during private times, when I was cooking for him, when I was attending on him, when I was caring for him in his home as otomo uchideshi (live-in servant apprentice).  O Sensei never taught these concepts or movements to regular students; this is why most of the world only understands Aikido as a defensive, pacifist art.

Why did O Sensei decide to teach only a few inner students this message, if he considered it so important?  First, O Sensei’s vision was to heal the world, and for most Aikido students it is enough to study the “light side” and find ways to bring harmony into their lives.  True understanding of katsujinken / satsujinken is difficult to explore, it is a difficult concept; putting it at the front would limit the growth of Aikido, how much of the world it could impact, and would lead to confusion by many students who did not have access to a teacher with deeper knowledge.  O Sensei made a differentiation between two types of Aikido students; the student who seeks to manifest the message of Aikido in their own lives, and the student who is a carrier of the Ueshiba vision and shoulders a burden to preserve the heart of Aikido for future generations.  It is the difference between student and deshi.  The deshi has a much harder path, it is harder training.  Another way to think of it, most students only read Aikido books, or only come to the dojo as recipients of Aikido instruction.  The deshi has to struggle with filling holes in their education, has to train outside of the dojo, and has to learn how to create Aikido instruction instead of just receive it.  There are many more bruises and aches and pains involved in studying the dark heart of Aikido knowledge, and it has to be embraced with serious determination.

Deeper Knowledge Requires Study of Both Harming and Healing

What do I say to students who are afraid of koppo?  Koppo has a purpose.  Its purpose is not to damage others, but to gain a more profound understanding.

O Sensei had many students, many deshi, but most deshi never massaged O Sensei’s back.  O Sensei’s back muscles were so strong, so tough!  I had to become much stronger for him to feel my massages, and it was very hard on my hands at first.  He used to say, “use more ki Saotome!  Use more ki, don’t just rub the surface!”  O Sensei taught us these ideas so that when we massaged him, we would have deeper knowledge.  Koppo principle takes Aiki knowledge to the inside.

Aikido jutsu, koppojutsu, is the “yin-yang” of shiatsu (Japanese massage; note, Saotome uses the term “shiatsu” to generically refer to manipulative/massage-based healing arts, not specifically to the shiatsu tradition).  But these are also not two things, they are connected.  Together, they are the deeper study of body systems, of living biology.  For example, classically, martial arts teachers often were encouraged to learn to be therapists in order to further their knowledge.  Martial artists and their students would get injured, and teachers would gain a familiarity with how the body worked and in what ways it had weaknesses or could be encouraged to heal.  Joint injuries, strains, broken bones come from classical martial art training, and the teacher would take on a responsibility for learning how to heal those injuries so they would not hinder training. Shiatsu enables a deeper knowledge of martial technique, and martial technique teaches a deeper knowledge of shiatsu.  But an ability to penetrate the body, to destroy, is required to study this knowledge, not just shime (pain control) or nice massage.

 Saotome sensei demonstrates a meridian pressure point on my arm which causes pain, but which can also be used to treat shoulder and stomach pain.

Yin and Yang

True Budo is balance, yin and yang in balance. Consider beer, or wine (Sensei broadly indicates some of the patrons at the restaurant drinking).  Beer can be good for you, or it can be poison.  It is not two different types of beer that makes a difference, the difference depends on knowledge and how it is taken into the body.  With no control, it is bad for you.

Kokyu (breath) is the same. Kokyu is the manifestation of balance, it contains in/out, yin/yang.  You cannot just inhale! You must also exhale.  We forget this in conflict. We forget what this means, but power comes from this balance.

Human beings are wonderful creatures, but we also know human nature has another side, very nasty, dangerous.  We must understand this and not only train for peaceful, gentle situations.  One must study the whole of human nature in order to cultivate and apply Aikido concepts.

I don’t talk specifically about koppo in my book (Harmony of Nature), but it is in there.  I talk about tidal waves, hurricanes; they can be very destructive, but they too are part of the yin and yang of nature.

Body, Spirit, Future, Mission

Why am I teaching koppo concepts to a much larger group of students than O Sensei did?  (laughing) Well, I’m not, completely.  I’m just challenging more of my students to study the idea, to think about the “inside” of intent and biology that constitute martial arts, and to understand the reason behind the movements we practice and that have been given to us by O Sensei.  My purpose is to guide Aikido students away from the “dancing mindset’, from training in a comfortable way mentally and physically.  I want to make them think about the real meaning, the real application of “harmony” – it comes from the moment of being in front of an enemy who can destroy you, who is not going to participate in your harmony. This is the essence of O Sensei’s Aikido meaning, and without this understanding Aikido is missing something important.  I often ask my students, “can you defend your life?” Because if your answer is “no”, then your Aikido has no real meaning and you have no real understanding of Aikido principle.  If Aikido is just dancing for you, then your Aikido is shallow, and it has no ability to either defend or heal.

On the other hand, shugyo (training) is not just about fighting either.  I show koppo so students can find understanding about the destructive aspects of Aikido jutsu, and to also discover the healing wisdom hidden in destructive technique.

O Sensei did not use a special word for these concepts in his special teachings to us (myself, Chiba, Tamura), he did not use the word “koppo.”  He did not show any special breaking techniques, just the same strikes and throws and atemi and finishing moves he showed in his weapons and open hand techniques to all of the students.  It was not necessary for him to use a special term, it was enough for him to reveal the deeper essence, the secret meanings to a few of his deshi so they would understand what he was always doing, what was inside all of his movement.  Koppo is simply the word I have chosen to be able to communicate these ideas to a larger group of students beyond my own close deshi.  I am challenging them to change their own Aikido, because I believe it is important to the future of Aikido and the future of ASU to remain true to the heart of O Sensei’s teachings.  I have a responsibility, my own deshi have a responsibility to carry O Sensei’s mission forward, it is his legacy, it is my legacy.  Without holding true to this deeper knowledge of both sides of Aikido, Aikido will eventually wither and lose meaning.

Just as bujutsu (martial techniques) teach shiatsu understanding, destructive intent teaches Aiki healing intent.  One teaches wisdom about destroying and healing the body, the other teaches wisdom about destroying and healing the spirit.  These concepts and wisdoms are intertwined, and together they bridge the physical training aspect of Aikido to O Sensei’s vision of healing the world.

– Mitsugi Saotome Shihan, December 2016


This interview with Saotome Sensei took place over the course of about 2-3 hours on 12/27/2016, during the ASU International Winter Intensive in St. Petersburg while I was serving as otomo.  The conversation took place at two locations, at a restaurant near the seminar hotel, and later in his hotel room.  As this article’s topic may be controversial, I have worked extra hard to use Sensei’s own words and phrasing as much as possible; as I paraphrased, I attempted to read my notes back to Sensei to confirm my understanding of his meaning.  I only expounded where I felt Sensei was referring to our past interviews or discussions, or when I felt the reader might be lacking context that might have been available if they had attended Sensei’s teachings during the Winter Intensive or was one of his personal deshi (such as those whom he has designated as members of the Ueshiba Juku). The only metaphor that was entirely mine was the “bite of the tiger”, which I added after the interview because I felt that the words I had transcribed did not convey the intensity of his body language and emotional intensity when he was describing the power of O Sensei.

It was a long interview that began at a restaurant, and ended with a beautiful view of the sunset while visiting on the balcony of Sensei’s room.

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14 Responses

  1. I’m really happy that you posted this article, about this very important topic. For years I’ve been saying the same thing to everybody at the dojo, “We’re not coming here to dance” and because of that, I’ve been criticized. What Salome sensei said on this article is true when he asked, “Can you defend your life?” because if your answer is “no”, then your Aikido has no real meaning and you have no real understanding of Aikido principle——–
    After having been disappointed many times for questioning this aspect of aikido, I decided to pursue my own search of this dark side, which took me back in part, to study the principles and technics of Aikijujutsu Daitoryu, and study of acupressure points (shiatsu), as well as, the tactical usage of aikido technics.
    Thank you so much for sharing.

  2. Thank you for posting this article. I’ve learned that Aikido had built a negative image in the martial art community from talking with many Martial Artists from difference backgrounds. I’ve heard criticisms stating that Aikido is the worst Martial Art because of it’s lack of success in the MMA ring and Brazilian Jiujitsu competitions by such MMA fighters as Bass Ruttun and Joe Rogan. Aikido may have developed this image due to the promotion of the it’s non-violent philosophy. Aikido it’s self may have been rendered a non-effective fighting style due to the methods used to train students rather than the actual potential of the Martial art itself. Senseis are simply not teaching effective combative techniques that exist in this art due to the focus being non-violent. Cooperation is stressed over free play or sparing. The lack of experience applying Aikido techniques on an uncooperative training partner leaves students unprepared for applications outside the dojo. Aikido has the potential to be effective and regain respect in the martial arts community by modifying the teaching approach and refocusing the attention to real world application.

  3. Meaningful words of a great teacher but a voice in the desert ,thousand of aikidoka like dancing all over the world

  4. Saotome Sensei is a gift and you have done a great service by your articles about his teachings. Thanks for your efforts. He has devoted his life to spreading the art of O’Sensei. Students like you make him realize his efforts have not been in vain. Gambatte. Warren Little, Missoula, MT

  5. Muy profundas y valiosas enseñanzas transmitidas por quien las recibió directamente de O Sensei.
    Gracias por compartirlas con todos los practicantes del mundo a través de la de la transcripción del reportaje, especialmente agradecidos quienes nos encontramos más lejos.

    Nuestro reconocimiento y cordiales saludos desde Argentina!

  6. Excellent article. We have always stressed the importance of understanding that aikido’s roots come from combat arts. I believe the only way to truly understand and practice its principles is to include atemi in our training as well as the fundamental knowledge of anatomy and its limitations. Thank you for sharing.

  7. Which is worse – an aikidoka who likes “dancing all round” or the “brute strength im gonna rip your arms of” type? You can find both in most dojos, even hombu. Modern aikido has been pervertedly watered down to mainly techniques and kata (and the oh so important….grading exams) by the chief culprit, Aikikai Hombu dojo, though i can say the same for most other offshoot aikido schools. Same goes for judo. imho, the essence of both great arts have been lost in their modern practice. modern aikido is more akin to jujitsu with nice slogans like “practice with the spirit of harmony”……and then you have students with bad alignment trying to ‘dance’ or the ‘arm rippers’ doing their thing. ridiculous training system.

    I have felt what it is like to attack a person with an aiki body and it really is like dancing, in a sense of you being led, just a matter of whether the nage wants to be nice to you or not. Not that cooperative uke stuff that i was practicing for years cause i was told to just “continue training”. I honestly think that except for those japanese senseis (and george ledyard, bill gleason) mostly from the yamaguchi line, most of them high ranking hombu instructors aren’t teaching anything that you cant watch and learn by yourself by watching youtube. Japan’s a real pretty country to visit though….

    i believe that the essence of aikido (hence daito ryu) shares similar concepts with internal chinese martial arts. The japanese will never openly teach concepts so similar to ICMA, that is IF they actually have people who can do aiki in the first place. I doubt doshu has any internal power like Saotome.

    It really is terrible when i train with senior people who tell me to “use more strength, you are doing a martial art!”. people who have no idea of the concept n principles of aikido because Aikikai never bothered to lay down any standards. All these “styles” by different schools which are in reality disuniting the people who practice an art rather than bring us together; so much for the ‘art of harmony’. we all practice aikido but we dont seem to draw “from the same well”. The standard of aikido has dropped greatly since the passing of the older generation, and each generation after it is more sucky. The unfortunate truth is Aikikai has done a piss poor job of upholding the standards of O Sensei’s aikido.

    1. Thanks for your thoughts! If it was only about strength, we should all be going to the gym instead of the dojo, right? And the bigger you are, the better the martial artist you are?

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